frontal lobes are organized along their rostrocaudal axis to support hierarchical frontal networks interact via local and global hierarchical structure to support. An influential class of theory proposes that the frontal lobes are organized along their rostrocaudal axis to support hierarchical cognitive control. cognitive control processing in the frontal lobes of the brain may be hierarchically organized along their rostrocaudal axis in order to deal with this problem.

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Also depicted in the figure is the spatial relationship of these regions to two other networks: For example, a conditional stimulus—response association — such as a saccade to the left in response to a high tone — would be a simple rule that specifies a concrete motor function. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.

Prefrontal neural correlates of memory for sequences. KingTobias Egner The Journal of neuroscience: Hence, although having a structurally arrayed hierarchical organization is not a requirement for the control of complex sequential behaviourwhen such an architecture exists, the same action can be represented at different levels of abstraction. Prefrontal interactions reflect future task operations. Computational and neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility.

Frontal Cortex and the Hierarchical Control of Behavior.

Where Are We Going? For example, rostral area 46 projects to area 10, which is less differentiated, and to area 8, which is more differentiated. Thus, there is no direct influence of the PFC on the primary motor cortex. Lucchetti C, Bon L. A recent repetition priming experiment has provided more direct evidence of a ventrolateral PFC gradient of abstraction Parallel temporal dynamics in hierarchical cognitive control.

Deficits on conditional associative-learning tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. In this case, an additional rule is necessary to determine whether the colour or shape rules are relevant in the current context.

Wagner Journal of neurophysiology A step in functional connectivity analysis whereby a region of interest is defined to which connectivity of all other regions is estimated. How we use rules to select actions: Asaf GilboaHannah Marlatte Trends in cognitive sciences The nomenclature they put forth in their maps is used in this Review. Anatomy along the rostro-caudal axis Clues as to the rostro-caudal organization of the frontal lobe can be derived from its anatomical organization 35 and its development BOX 2.


This revealed that both in monkeys and humans, areas 9 and 46 are in the mid-dorsolateral sector of the lateral prefrontal cortex. Music Neuroscience Philosophy Physical Sciences.

Liang Tien Hsieh 6 Estimated H-index: From rule to response: Cytoarchitectonic divisions of the human and monkey frontal lobe Rostral and caudal axes are labelled and the numbers rostrovaudal the update by Petrides and Pandya of the Brodmann and Walker cytoarchitecture maps. Then we consider whether the rostro-caudal anatomy of the frontal lobes, including its intrinsic connectivity, also supports this gradient.

Is the rostro-caudal axis of the frontal lobe hierarchical?

Further, multiple lines of evidence suggest that anterior area 47 and mid-ventrolateral PFC area 45 are dissociable based on the degree of specificity at which retrieval from memory is conducted 16,going from abstract semantic retrieval to post-retrieval decision processing. Premotor cortex and the retrieval of movement. One ground-breaking study demonstrated that as the contextual information required to select a response progressively became more abstract and remained relevant over a longer temporal interval, fMRI activation moved from PMd to area 44 to the mid-dorsolateral PFC area 46; FIG.

Conversion of working memory to motor sequence in the monkey premotor cortex. But this abstract goal can be broken down into more specific subgoals, like slicing bread or spreading mayonnaise, and each of these subgoals can be further broken down into more specific sub-subgoals, and so forth.

Conceptual knowledge, beliefs and facts about the world.

Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Thus less-differentiated areas such as those in rostral PFC areas 10, 9 and 46 rostrocaudql more diffuse projections and are well situated to be at the top of a hierarchy.


These putative functional differences drontal currently the primary evidence for theories regarding a rostro-caudal hierarchical architecture to the frontal cortex. Brain development in children and adolescents: Pochon JB, et al. Functional-anatomic correlates of control processes in memory.

Is the rostro-caudal axis of the frontal lobe hierarchical?

Specifically, input and output layers communicated directly with lower layers but indirectly through the lower layers with higher layers. Are the functional gradients hierarchical?

Part b is reproduced, with permission, from REF. Thus, the frontal th could be viewed as a set of areas showing gradual changes in architectonic organization in these two major cortical lines.

According to a contiguity principle, regions A and B, and regions B and C are contiguous and so should have reciprocal projections. Broadly, the data reviewed here suggest that there are important regional distinctions hierarchjcal the rostro-caudal axis of the frontal lobe and that these regions act as a coherent functional network.

Also, in both species, area 9 lies dorsal to area Supplementary Material supplementary box Click here to view. Afferent and efferent projections outside the frontal cortex Based on their anatomical studies, Petrides and Pandya made the crucial observation that area 10 as well as area 9 does not project to the parietal cortex, the inferotemporal cortex or the visual areas of occipital cortex.

Neural mechanisms of visual working memory in prefrontal cortex of the macaque. To resolve these discrepancies, Petrides and Pandya 10, performed an extensive comparison of the architecture of the frontal cortex between monkeys and humans.

To understand why actions might be processed hierarchically by the brain, consider the act of making a sandwich. Although this hypothesis is both contentious and preliminary, there is some thd for a rostral-to-caudal flow of control.